A White House Reception Does Not a Policy Make…

tnh chi


Source: The National Herald

June 24-30, 2017 Edition – Page 12

By Peter Marudas

Once again, The National Herald has demonstrated its unique role in stimulating dialogue and the open exchange of ideas concerning important matters facing our community. Its most recent contribution was reflected in two informative items appearing in the May 6 edition regarding the status of the Greek-American political presence in Washington.

First, a Herald editorial titled “Emerging Greek-American Leaders” is a serious and thoughtful review of our past and present-emerging leadership in Washington.

The other, an article by Washington insiders, Andy and Mike Manatos, suggests that the annual Greek-American Presidential reception at the White House is the most important aspect of our community’s effort in Washington.

Andy and Mike Manatos, who run a Washington lobbying business, have been active for many years in Greek-American activities, and in collaboration with the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, instituted the Presidential Reception now in its 31st year. Their article featured a remarkable assertion that the Presidential Reception – a largely social and ceremonial event – is the keystone of the Greek-American presence in Washington.

This claim was puzzling and disappointing.

The Manatos’s major thesis that the Greek Orthodox Church in America through Archbishop Demetrios and his chief political agent, Father Alexander Karloutsos, are and should be the key individuals in our Washington presence, is simply unrealistic in the real world of U.S. government and political policy.

First, it raises a fundamental question whether it is effective or appropriate for clerics to intrude in complex foreign policy issues in contemporary America,the largest and greatest democracy in history. It raises the red flags of confusion as reflected in the Archbishop’s continuing involvement in the Cyprus dispute and other Greek-related issues. While his concern is commendable, it is counter-productive and betrays an inability to separate secular political issues between Greece, Cyprus and Turkey from the Church’s understandable concern for the welfare of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in Istanbul.

Such action is not only politically wrong-headed but harmful. Harmful in that it sends a signal to Ankara that Archbishop Demetrios whose immediate ecclesiastical superior is Patriarch Bartholomew and Father Karloutsos, a publicly acknowledged confidant of the Patriarch, are working openly against Turkish political interests. How does this help Cyprus or the Ecumenical Patriarchate? Turkish President/Prime Minister Erdogan and his ministers whose cooperation is essential to relating pressure on the Ecumenical Patriarchate, certainly can’t be happy with the Patriarch Bartholomew’s American representatives’ political maneuverings. The Church in America has simply no business interjecting itself into Greek political issues.

It also significantly undercuts the Church’s moral credibility and that of thousands of the faithful and religious rights advocates who correctly point to Turkey’s consistent violation of the Patriarchate’s right to religious freedom and to reopen the Chalki Seminary. This situation is clearly a universally recognized issue of religious freedom. In contrast, Greece’s disputes over Cyprus, illegal Turkish flights in the Aegean and other differences, while critical, are bi-lateral political issues. Mixing the status of the Patriarchate with these matters only hands Turkey another lever of pressure, and highlighting the involvement of Greek-American clergymen further roils the waters.

Splitting the Patriarchal issue from Cypriot and Greek national issues in no way diminishes the tragedy that thousands of Turkish troops still occupy that island nation.

But it is important that our precious resources and vigilant attention not be diluted by spreading ourselves too thin. We cannot afford ineffective extraneous clerical interference in the important “national” issues that are best left to secular political leaders in America, Cyprus,Greece and Europe.

It is reassuring that Greek Orthodox Americans feel close to their local churches and view them as centers of community activity but not as political vehicles. It is also well to remind ourselves, however, that we are not living under Ottoman Turkish rule when the Church was designated by the Sultans as the only relatively independent institution. To encourage the Church in America to assume such a role is obsolete and ineffective. We do not need a Martin Luther King; our community faced challenges in America but did not suffer centuries of slavery and oppression.

What is needed now, as the Herald’s perceptive commentary advises, are tested political leaders with recognizable credibility to lead our advocacy.

In chronicling the evolution of our community’s political presence in Washington over the years, the Herald cites the critical contributions made by distinguished Greek-American members of Congress, among them Rep. John Brademas, Senator Paul Sarbanes and Representative Gus Bilirakis, along with Senators Olympia Snowe and Paul Tsongas. They were joined by Phil-Hellenes as Thomas Eagleton, Joe Biden, Ben Rosenthal and Ed Derwinski. It also praises the efforts of present members of Congress, Gus Bilirakis, John Sarbanes, Carolyn Maloney and Senator Bob Menendez. In contrast, the Manatos depiction of political Washingon fails to make not even one mention of the dedicated and hardworking Greek-American and Phil-Hellenic elected officials not just in D.C. but around the country. The Herald rightly recognized these champions, both past and present, of our causes, who like the 300 heroes of Thermopylae have stayed ever-vigilant at their posts and loyal to the cause. Instead, the Manatos article showers extraordinarily lavish praise on Father Karloutsos, portrays Archbishop Demetrios as our political leader and describes their participation in the White House ceremonies as our community’s pivotal presence in Washington. This approach to rely on White House receptions and expensive dinners honoring public officials, some deserving, some not, as important to our collective causes, is in reality a fragile substitute for realistic and substantive policy.

Case in point: President George W. Bush, like his immediate predecessors and successors, sponsored during his first term, presidential receptions where hierarchs, priests and laity were warmly welcomed, and private presidential meetings were bestowed on the “presiding” Archbishop. President Bush, despite sharp political disagreements, was considered, even by many of his most fervent opponents, as an engaging and decent individual. Yet, on the day after his reelection in November, 2004, his administration suddenly and without forewarning, recognized FYROM as Macedonia. This action came as a total surprise, because it contradicted existing U.S. policy, concretely expressed by American-backed negotiations between Greece and FYROM. This shocking announcement blindsided Athens, other nations and our community, creating a firestorm of protest in Greece and around the world. It should now be historically clear that those intimate meetings between President Bush and the Archbishop, at the end of the day, had no impact on the Bush Administration’s policy on the Macedonian issue. In fact, the reverse was true.

And despite dinners and receptions, such turn-abouts are Bi-Partisan. Consider President Carter, an individual of publicly-recognized rectitude, who made a highly public campaign pledge to support the congressionally-approved embargo on U.S. arms sales to Turkey. Then once in office, he completely reversed himself and successfully moved to abolish the arms ban on Turkey. Let the historical record also show that at the very time President Carter was aggressively working against our community on this most important of issues, Archbishop Iakovos trekked to the White House to receive a high Presidential award from Carter before an audience of selected Greek-Americans. My recollection is that to their credit, not one Greek-American member of Congress attended this event. It should be obvious by now, while such ceremonies may be great for our collective egos or for the individual prestige of an Archbishop, they are no substitute for persistent and effective political strategies. For some observers, it might appear that successive presidential administrations might not be incorrect in viewing the Greek-American community through the prism of White House receptions, not as vigorous advocates of principled positions of political freedom and human rights.

This is not to devalue completely past and even present contributions by Hellenic organizations in Washington, the Manatos firm included; but the daunting challenges facing Greece today demand a much more inclusive and skillful political Washington presence. These serious challenges and threats are clear and present: Greece’s perilous economic condition; radical and unpredictable changes in Turkey; general instability in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East; and a genuinely new presidential administration in Washington whose policy directions are just beginning to take shape.

The very recent visit by Turkish President Erdogan indicates perhaps the difficult road ahead.

The National Herald’s objective and perceptive analysis of our situation makes the case, in this writer’s view, for an urgent and new approach – one that builds, as the Herald editorial advises, on the community’s emerging broader leadership. Existing arrangements are not to be summarily dismissed; but given the stakes, it is imperative for our community’s institutions and activists to rigorously and frankly reassess priorities.

The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese must get out of the political business. It is neither equipped or qualified for such an endeavor. Will its mission be Pastoral or Political?

Those who have over the years generously contributed large sums to our causes, must seriously determine whether their investments have generated fruitful outcomes, as must those activists who unselfishly devote great time and effort.

A new, and it must be stressed, vastly more inclusive leadership is needed in Washington. One which tenaciously focuses on the important mission before us and is not preoccupied by irrelevant social-ceremonial activities, too often touted as politically meaningful.

The Herald editorial’s Emerging Leaders again shows us the way. We must recruit and enlist new talent and broaden our reach. We owe this to the struggling and heroic Greek and Cypriot peoples and to those who did so much before us and those who will carry the torch in the future.

In this respect, we must always remember that celebratory Ceremonies and Dinners do not a policy make.

Peter Marudas wrote editorial pieces on Greece, Cyprus, Turkey and the Ecumenical Patriarchate for the Baltimore Sun in the early Nineteen-Sixties and covered the 1965 Cyprus talks convened by President Lyndon Johnson. He served as Chief of Staff to Senator Paul Sarbanes in both his Senate and House offices. Marudas also served as Chief of Staff to Baltimore Mayors: Theodore McKeldin, the city’s last Republican Mayor; Democrat Thomas J. D’Alesandro,III, brother of Nancy Pelosi, the House Democratic leader; and as senior staff and advisor to Kurt L. Schmoke, Baltimore’s first-elected African-American Mayor.

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Reading between the lines of the article “Enhancing the Role of the Ecumenical Patriarch”

Dennis Menos, the author of the publication “Enhancing the Role of the Ecumenical Patriarch” on The National Herald, asserts that the organizational structure of the Orthodox Church based on the principle of autocephaly does not meet the requirements of the present day. In particular, according to Mr.Menos, it does not allow to solve a diaspora problem and impedes interfaith dialogue. He believes that “the Ecumenical Patriarch needs to be elevated to the rank of “head” of the Orthodox East, with authority to act and speak for the entire Church” and that His Holiness “will need to be freed of all responsibility for serving also as the Primate of the Church of Constantinople”. The author argues that the Ecumenical Patriarch would then be able to represent the fullness of the Orthodox Church in dialogues with heterodox Christians and “to focus on activities designed to reunify Greek Orthodoxy”. According to Mr. Menos, one such activity would be the convening annually of a conclave of the Primates of all 14 Autocephalous Churches as “the highest leading assembly of the Orthodox East.”

Comments to the article are quite interesting too. They express moderate support of the author or emphasize the perniciousness of the “religious dictatorship”, exemplified by the OCA and the GOARCH, suggesting that the Church’s influence should be enhanced through reforms aimed at activating missionary activity and democratization of church life.

In my opinion, all these things characterize the current situation in American Orthodoxy quite precisely. That’s why I’d like to share some observations in this regard. Moreover, Dennis Menos isn’t alone. As comments to the article show, he is backed even by some GOARCH clergymen. At least for only this reason, his voice is worth being heard and examined carefully.

Who is speaking on Orthodox Christian affairs?

In his Twitter posts, Mr. Menos has repeatedly called for an early reconciliation of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman-Catholics and expressed support of the actions of Patriarch Bartholomew in this perspective. The publications of Dennis Menos repeatedly emphasize that the administrative unity of the Orthodox Church (which is often claimed by Patriarch Bartholomew without taking any real actions to reconcile the Jerusalem and Antiochian patriarchates, for example) is a necessary condition for overcoming the “senseless thousand-year division” between The Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church.

In addition, he stands for the conversion of the St. Sophia Cathedral in Istanbul to an interfaith sanctuary, where people of all faiths could pray. Thus, he strives for “wrong ecumenism” rather than for healing the great Schism of 1054 through repentance and triumph of Orthodox teaching.

Is the writer an expert on the topic?

Dennis Menos is clearly unfamiliar with Orthodox ecclesiology since his saying about the unanimous decision-making “by all 14 Primates” in the absence of a “head” of the Church downplays the role of bishops in the Synods of Local Churches. His proposal to establish the annual Conclave of the Primates as the highest governing body is another example that reveals his non-Orthodox way of thinking. This idea is borrowed from Roman Catholics (although the author uses the Latin word conclave here inappropriately). In the Orthodox Church, the voice of the Primate does not mean anything without the support of his Synod, as the 34th Apostolic Rule says. And Mr. Menos proposes that the meeting of the 14 “big bosses” should solve all the problems of the World Orthodoxy in an authoritarian way, without asking their bishops. There was no such body in the Church for nearly 2000 years before Patriarch Bartholomew, this is an innovation alien to the Holy Canons and it’s not envisaged by them.

As to the idea of having a “head” of the Orthodox East, those who really want to have a “visible head” of the Church should know very well whom to resort to. If you want to have a pope – employ the services of a professional but not of an amateur. And we will stand on what the Holy Fathers taught: the Head of the Church is Christ! The visible head of the Church, “the vice-Christ” is another Latin heretical concept in Menos’ piece. Why on Earth the Orthodox Church, after having lived 20 centuries without this false teaching, has to suddenly do a 180 in the 21st century and accept a doctrine completely alien to it?!

It would be better if the author studied the topic and current state of things more thoroughly before writing on it and coming up with suggestions on how to “fix” things.

Who backs him from within the Orthodox Church?

Unfortunately, the ideas of Dennis Menos were supported by the GOARCH clergymen who disrespect church canons and traditions. For example, Metropolitan Elpidophoros Lambriniadis is well-known by his “first without equals” concept too. Fr. Basil Papanikolaou, a former GOARCH archpriest defrocked for the second marriage, and Fr. Steven Vlahos (retired) are far less famous, but cherish the same dream about having “the Patriarch Pope of the East”. Finally, Patriarch Bartholomew fulfills their aspirations through meetings and joint prayers with the Popes, the Cretan “Holy and Great” Council, a letter to the Archbishop of Athens Ieronymos II, etc.

“By proclaiming the patriarch pope of the east the Orthodox Church would be in position to fulfill the plans of this writer. Of course, tradition and canon law would have to be modified and the other Orthodox churches would have to agree. Perhaps this could be accomplished at a future Great and Holy Council,” – Fr. Steven Vlahos stated in his comment to the article. Thus, it is ecumenical aspirations and the ultimate rapprochement with papism that determine the value of the “visible unity” of the Church for the Phanariots.

What fruits these ideas will bear?

Quite surprisingly, blatantly papistic nature of the article “Enhancing the Role of the Ecumenical Patriarch” may facilitate the acceptance of Protestant ideas (such as those expressed in Ashley Navis’ comments to this publication) about reforming the Church to truckle to the laics. Both extremities increase the tolerance of the readers – mostly Americans of Greek origin – toward deviations from the Orthodox Christian teaching.

Is it OK?

Archons of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, members of the Order of St. Andrew the Apostle mentioned by Dennis Menos are actively involved in political activities, some of them strongly oppose Donald Trump and do not stop before using their influence in the Church to promote their political views. Many influential laypeople who belong to the GOARCH adhere to liberal views on marriage and “gender equality” and stick to non-Orthodox spiritual practices.


Marilyn Rouvelas, co-author of the Patriarch Bartholomew’s adviser
Fr. John Chryssavgis, at the Women’s March in Washington, DC


A book by Mark Arey, former GOARCH priest who left the priesthood in order to remarry but still is actively engaged in Patriarch Bartholomew’s projects

Whom and what will the Ecumenical Patriarch serve to if such people impose their ideas on the Orthodox clergy “in love and humility” in the guise of fighting for “transparency and accountability”? As if it were politicians and millenials, disoriented by the collapse of the institution of the family, who created the Church and have a right to rule over it!

What is a proper response?

Seems like Patriarch Bartholomew becomes a toy, a subsidiary coin in the struggle between the two most widely covered by the media Christian denominations. On the part of His Holiness, the best protection of the interests of Orthodoxy in this situation will be distancing oneself from any influences from outside of the Church and not to take any side while focusing on spiritual life (one’s own and the one of the flock) and standing firmly on the traditional, strictly Orthodox principles of church organization.

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Keep on praying for Syrian People…

Not only at National Day of Prayer…

By the way, for all who want to know more about Christianity in Syria, I can heartily recommend an OCP Publication’s book “Collected Writings on Orthodox Christianity: Various Aspects of Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Churches”. Its 2nd edition has already been released. And though I doesn’t share all the goals of OCP, the book definitely worth reading.

These letters below are presented in the “Collected Writings” as well.

Source: Evidences of What Syrian Christians experienced during the war and Who really helped them

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Was Letter of Abkhazian Orthodox Church to Phanar just Coincident with Poisoning Plot against His Holiness Ilia II?


Georgian patriarchate official detained for plotting to poison Ilia II. Prosecutors in the Caucasus nation said they caught archpriest Giorgi Mamaladze with sodium cyanide on February 10 as he boarded a plane to Berlin, where Patriarch Ilia II was awaiting a gallbladder operation. http://www.theborneopost.com/2017/02/14/alleged-murder-plot-shakes-georgian-orthodox-church/ As yet, it’s known that the operation was successfully completed. Thanks to medics, and Glory to God! http://www.pravoslavie.ru/english/101011.htm

It’s worth noting that a day before the Mamaladze’s arrest, on February 9, 2017, self-proclaimed Abkhazian Orthodox Church sent a letter to the the Ecumenical Patriarch.


The Council of the Holy Metropolis of Abkhazia unanimously adopts all of the above documents and recommends these documents to the Orthodox Christians who make up the flock of the Holy Metropolis of Abkhazia as mandatory for fulfilment. At the same time, the Council of the Holy Metropolis of Abkhazia considers that the document on autonomy and the manner of its proclamation are not applicable in respect of the Orthodox flock of the Republic of Abkhazia. The document also claims that the refusal of the Georgian Orthodox Church to participate in the Holy and Great Council, as well as its refusal to sign a document on the sacrament of Matrimony and the obstacles to it, demonstrated the dominance of the heresy of ethnophyletism in the Georgian Church. https://panorthodoxcemes.blogspot.com/2017/02/letter-of-of-self-proclaimed-abkhazian.html

So was it just a coincidence? Or perhaps it was an attempt to provoke discussion and thus “ventilate a question” about the possible successor of His Holiness?

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A list of inspirational short films to watch!

  1. “Effect”-Directed By – Atom Film. -Turquie/Turkey: Supposing you received new eyes, donated by a man who recently died in a car accident? This award-winning Turkish film tells the story of the recipient of an eye transplant who starts seeing the last hours of the donor’s life through them, including his beautiful wife. An unsettling love story told in reverse.

fr:Supposant que vous avez reçu de nouveaux yeux, qui font l’objet de dons par un homme qui est récemment mort dans un accident de la route ? Ce film turc primé raconte l’histoire du destinataire ayant reçu une transplantation des yeux qui commence à voir les dernières heures de la vie du donateur à travers “ses yeux” y compris sa belle femme. Une histoire d’amour troublante racontée à l’envers!

2.  ‘Watchtower of Turkey‘ :  Nominated as Best Video of 2014 on Vimeo, Final Cut Pro X provided all the tools for Leonardo Dalessandri to produce a spectacular and inspirational piece of work. Music:  Ludovico Einaudi – Experience.

fr:‘Le Mirador de la Turquie ‘ : Nommé  comme la Meilleure Vidéo de 2014 sur Vimeo, la Finale Cut Pro X a fourni tous les outils à Leonardo Dalessandri, le réalisateur, pour produire un travail spectaculaire et inspirant.

3.  “A Letter To The SkyIranian  Short Film: A boy named “Mahdi” lost his firefighter father who saved a little girl from a deadly fire. Out of missing his father, Mahdi decides to write him a letter and send it to the sky (heaven) with two helium balloons. A stranger receives the letter accidentally, reads it and decides to reply on behalf of Mahdi’s father to end Mahdi’s confusion and grief.

fr: Un garçon nommé “Mahdi” a perdu son père de pompier qui a sauvé la vie d’une petite fille pendant un  incendie mortel. Du manque de son père,  Mahdi décide de lui écrire une lettre en l’envoyant au ciel accrochée sur  deux ballons d’hélium. Un étranger reçoit la lettre accidentellement, la lit et décide donc de répondre en se faisant passer pour le père de Mahdi pour mettre fin à  la confusion et le chagrin que Mahdi subit.

4.  “Ecce Hommos”Comedy (2009): Lebanon/Liban: Full of enthusiasm and hope, a young Lebanese filmmaker, script in hand, knocks on the door of an « international » producer to pitch his film project. Written & Directed by Claude El Khal. Produced by Zoe Productions.
fr: Ecce Hommos, un court-métrage très amusant de Claude El Khal.  Le sujet traite des Clichés sur le Liban, l’humour est présent et très bien représenté. Ecrit et dirigé par Claude El Khal.

5. “Les feuilles mortes (Dead Leaves)”Court Métrage,Maroc/ Franceun court-métrage consacré aux attentats du 13 novembre ayant sévi en France.

fr: Short film talking aboutthe Paris terror attacks which left 129 people dead.

6. “Ambargo | Embargo – Short Video of Cyprus”-(Video – Mahmut Ersin Altan) : The video Embargo, is related with the problems in Cyprus, which are not visible, have been forgotten or became the reality. Except the real conflicts, these small problems have been accepted by the community without deserving them.

fr:/ La vidéo titrée Embargo, nous raconte des problèmes quotidiens à Chypre, qui ne sont pas visibles qui ont été oubliés ou sont devenus desormais la réalité. En étant  exclus des autres conflits réels, ces petits problèmes ont été acceptés par la communauté sans les mériter et surtout les jeunes.

7. “Le dernier passager- The Last Passenger”: (Algérie-Algeria) by Mounes Khammar

A young jumps from a cliff. Before leaving forever, his soul pays a visit to his two impossible loves: a woman, and the stage of a concert hall

fr:/ Un jeune homme saute dans le vide, avant de disparaitre à jamais, son âme rend une dernière visite à ses deux amours impossibles : une femme et une scène de concert.

8. «STOLEN dreams/ Lesves volés» – short film- Palestine

This is a story of a Palestinian child who lost his mother as well as his country and childhood… Will he be able to keep his dreams?

fr:/Ceci est une histoire d’un enfant palestinien qui a perdu sa mère aussi bien que son pays et son enfance à jamais… Pourra-t-il garder ses rêves?

  • 10. “The other pair/L’autre aire” Directed by / Réalisateur: ٍSarah Rozik. (Egypte/ Egypt)

Egyptian short film (just over 4 minutes) that won an award at the Luxor Film Festival

.A  video that talks about sharing, reciprocity and recalls an episode from the life of Gandhi: getting on a train, he lost a shoe on the tracks. He tried to take it when the train was about to leave, but it was impossible. Then he took off the other shoe and threw it next to each other. Someone, astonished, asked him why he had done it. So Gandhi replied, smiling: “A poor man who finds one shoe would not know what to do with it

fr:/Gagnant d’un festival du court_métrage en Egypte (2014), un court-métrage qui a été inspiré par la vie de Gandhi. Un jour, Gandhi était à bord d’un train avec un certain nombre de disciples et de compagnons quand il perd une chaussure qui disparaît entre les wagons. Incapable de la récupérer, il enlève l’autre chaussure et la jette vers la première. Pour répondre à la perplexité de ses compagnons de voyage, Ghandi explique qu’il serait plus profitable pour une pauvre personne de trouver une paire de chaussure que d’en trouver une seule.


via Une sélection des courts-métrages à regarder sans hésiter !/ A list of inspirational short films to watch! — Eyes on Europe & Middle East

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Source: OCP Media Network

The Holy Synod of the Church of Georgia has met and discussed the “Council of Crete.” We are now in possession of a summary* of the Decision which the Holy Synod of the Church of Georgia issued at its recent meeting regarding the Cretan gathering.

It was initially reported that the Holy Synod had “tabled” a conclusive decision regarding the “Council of Crete” until a theological commission could examine the documents the Council produced. This is true, however, we now have learned that as it pertains to the Council’s organization and its claim to Pan-Orthodox authority, the Holy Synod has already spoken definitively.

In the synodical decision issued by the Georgian Orthodox Church the hierarchy of the Church of Georgia stated that:

1. The Cretan Council is not a Pan-Orthodox Council, as four Churches did not participate in it;

2. The decisions of the Council of Crete are not obligatory for the Georgian Church, since the Council of Crete abolished the principle of consensus;

3. The documents issued by the Council of Crete do not reflect important critiques made by the Local Churches, and thus it is necessary for them to be corrected;

4. The documents of Crete need to reflect the teaching of the Orthodox Church; this is not the case with the present set of texts.

5. It is necessary for the Holy and Great Council to be held and we are confident it will be and that this future Council will make decisions by consensus, based on the teaching of Orthodox Church.

6. It is, thus, for this purpose that the Holy Synod has formed a theological commission to examine the documents accepted in Crete and to prepare for the future Council which will be Pan-Orthodox.

* * *

*This summary was provided to Orthodox Ethos by a member of the Church of Georgia and is not a direct translation of the encyclical issued by the Holy Synod. We expect a full translation to be available in the near future and we encourage our readers to wait on that patiently.

Georgian source found here.

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5 პირველი ქართული ეკლესია – ისტორია, რომელიც უნდა ვიცოდეთ

საქართველოში ქრისტიანობის გავრცელებამ IV საუკუნეში ხუროთმოძღვრებასა და არქიტექტურას მიზნად ახალი მოთხოვნები დაუსახა, – ახალი ეკლესიები უნდა აშენებულიყო. თავიდან ბაზილიკები იგებოდა, რომლებიც ქართულ ტრადიციებთან იყო შერწყმული და IV-დან VI საუკუნის ჩათვლით, ამ ტიპის რამდენიმე ეკლესია კიდეც აშენდა.

ძველი შუამთა
ეს ტაძარი კახეთში, თელავიდან 7 კმ-ში, ტყეში V საუკუნეშია აგებული. ალაზნის ხეობის ზედა პლატოზე გაშლილია სამონასტრო კომპლექსის სამი ეკლესია, მათ შორის უძველესი – V საუკუნეში აგებული სამნავიანი ბაზილიკა და ჯვრის ფორმის 2 ეკლესიაა. ორივე რიყის ქვითაა ნაგები.

XVI საუკუნეში ძველი შუამთის მონასტერი დაცარიელდა. მის მახლობლად კახეთის მეფის ლევან II-ის (1520-1570) მეუღლემ თინათინ გურიელის ასულმა შუამთის ახალი მონასტერი დაარსა. აგურით ნაგები ეკლესია ჯვარ-გუმბათოვანია, შიგნით – მოხატულია, რომელიც ერეკლე II-მ განაახლა. კომპლექსში სამრეკლო და სხვა ნაგებობები შედის.

ბოლნისის სიონი
სამთავიანი ბაზილიკის ტიპის ნაგებობათა შორის ბოლნისის სიონი ერთ-ერთი უდიდესი და უძველესი ძეგლია. მდებარეობს ქვემო ქართლში, სოფელ ბოლნისში. ჩრდილოეთით, ერთ-ერთი შესასვლელის თავზე არის წარწერა, რომლის მიხედვითაც (478-493 წლებში) შემონახულია საქართველოში არსებული უძველესი წარწერა. ბოლნისის ცნობილი ტაძარი IV საუკუნის ბოლო წლებში ელია მთავარეპისკოპოსს აუგია. ვახტანგ გორგასალმა ბოლნისის სიონის ტაძარში საეპისკოპოსო საყდარი დააარსა. პირველ ბოლნელ ეპისკოპოსად დავითია მიჩნეული, რომელიც ბოლნისის სიონის აღმოსავლეთი ფასადის წარწერაშია მოხსენიებული. ეკლესიის გვერდით, სამხრეთ-დასავლეთით, XVII საუკუნის სამრეკლოა შემონახული. ბოლნისის სიონი XVII საუკუნეში რესტავრირებული და შეკეთებულია. 1936-1939 ჩატარებულ სამუშაოების შედეგად ძეგლი გათხარეს, შეაკეთეს, გადახურეს და გაამაგრეს. რეტავრაცია 1967-1969 წლებშიც ჩატარდა. ბოლნისის სიონში თავიდანვე მწიგნობრული საქმიანობა იყო გაჩაღებული. დღეს კი ის ბოლნისი ეპარქიის ნაწილია.

მდებარეობს ქართლში, სოფელ ურბნისთან. წარწერების შესწავლის საფუძველზე, ტაძარი V-VI საუკუნეებით თარიღდება, სადაც მოხსენიებულები არიან ეკლესიის მშენებლები – კონსტანტინე და მამა მიქაელი. ტაძარი სამთავიანი ბაზილიკაა. ეკლესია თავდაპირველად აგებულია ურთიერთმორგებული ქვიშაქვით, ქვები სხვადასხვა ზომისაა, მაგრამ ჰორიზონტალობა დაცულია. IX საუკუნეში ეკლესიას რესტავრიცია გაუკეთდა. ურბნისის კომპლექსი გორის ეპარქიას ექვემდებარება და მოქმედია.

თბილისის ანჩისხატი
მდებარეობს თბილისში, მტკვრის მარცხენა სანაპიროზე. XX საუკუნეში, რესტავრაციის დროს ორი ფილა აღმოაჩინეს, სადაც “ჯვრის ამაღლების” რელიეფთან ერთად, შემონახულა წარწერა, რომლის მიხედვითაც, ტაძარი X საუკუნის დასაწისში, ვახტანგ გორგასლის შვილის დაჩის მიერ, დედაქალაქის თბილისში გადმოტანისას აიგო. ტაძარი ერთ საუკუნეში, შემოსევების შედეგად ძალიან დაზარალებულა, მისი აღდგენისას მახლობლად კათოლიკოსისთვის რეზიდენცია აუგიათ. 1664 წელს ქართლის კათოლიკოსმა დომენტი III-მ თბილისელი ვაჭრისაგან შეიძინა სამცხიდან, ანჩის მონასტრიდან, ჩამოტანილი ბექა ოპიზრის მიერ მოჭედილი მაცხოვრის ხელთუქმნელი ხატი. ხატის ახალ ადგილსამყოფელად საკათოლიკოსო ტაძარი – ყოვლადწმიდა მარიამის შობის ეკლესია – შეირჩა. სწორედ ამ დროიდან დამკვიდრდა მისი ახალი სახელი – ანჩისხატის ეკლესია.

მდებარეობს კახეთში, ყვარლის მუნიციპალიტეტში,  სოფელ შილდის მახლობლად, მთის ფერდობზე. დაარსა 13 ასურელ მამათაგან ერთ-ერთმა, აბიბოსმა VI საუკუნეში. ნეკრესის სამონასტრო კომპლექსი რამდენიმე ისტორიულ ძეგლს აერთიანებს. მისი მნიშვნელობა განსაზღვრულია შემდეგი ფაქტორებით: ერთი მხრივ საქართველოს ტერიტორიაზე სწორედ აქ იქნა აგებული ერთ-ერთი პირველი ქრისტიანული სამლოცველო (IV საუკუნის III მეოთხედში); მეორე მხრივ კი, უკვე VI საუკუნის მეორე ნახევარში აქ დიდად მნიშვნელოვანი კულტურული კერა გაჩნდა. ეს მოვლენა დაკავშირებულია იოანე ზედაზნელის თანამოღვაწის, აბიბოს სახელთან, რომელიც ნეკრესის მღვდელმთავრად აკურთხეს.

ამ მონასტერს უკავშირდება ლეგენდა: ცნობილია, რომ მუსლიმები ღორის ხორცს არ ჭამენ. ამიტომ, შაჰ-აბასის შემოსევის დროს, მონასტერში ღორები სამი დღით გამოკეტეს. როდესაც თათრები ახალი გაღვიძებულები იყვნენ, მიუსიეს. დამშეულ ღორებს ეგონათ, საჭმელად მივყავართო და გაეკიდნენ. ეს ამბავი შაჰ-აბასს მოახსენეს, რომელმაც ბრძანა, რომ მონასტრისთვის ალყა მოეხსნათ და იმ ადგილს აღარ გაკარებოდნენ.

ნეკრესში სხვადასხვა დროს მოღვაწე ქართველი მღვდელმთავრები წერდნენ და წიგნებს თარგმნიდნენ… ნეკრესის ეპარქია 1811 წელს გაუქმდა.

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